Motivation experiment psychology

IntroductionPsychologist define motivation as an internal process that gide and maintain the behaviour understandings. Motivation is the word derived from the word ’motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals.It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals.

In our day to day life, we do many types of work.  Why do we do these things?  Perhaps we do it because there must be some kind of motivation behind it.  Now the question arises what is motivation ?  What is its form?  

Motivation generally refers to the state that motivates a person to do an action.
But just saying this doesn’t make the meaning very clear.  We are presenting below the views of psychologists to understand the true meaning of motivation.
According to Baron, Berne and Kantowitz’ (Baron, Byme & Kantowitz, 1980), “In psychology we define motivation as a hypothetical internal process that provides the energy for behaviour and directs it toward specific goal.”
 According to Morgan, King, Weisz and Schopler 2 (Morgan, King, Weisz & Schopler, 1986),Motivation  It refers to a driving and pulling force which continuously moves the behavior towards a particular goal.
 According to Coon & Mitterer (Coon & Mitterer, 2007),Motivation refers to the dynamics of behavior.on the ways in which our actions are initiated,sustained,directed and terminated.’’
  According to Ciccarelli & Meyer* (Ciccarelli & Meyer, 2006), “Motivation is a process by which activities are started,directed,and continued so that physics or psychological needs or wants fulfilled .
 If we pay close attention to the views of the above psychologists, we will find that motivation is such a person’s internal state is said to produce some actions in it and direct its behavior in a particular direction (goal).  leads to the attainment of the objective.
   
There are two types of motivation 
(1) Intrinsic motivation
(2) extrinsic motivation

Name of the experiment-  Motivation

Purpose– To study the effect of feedback on the performance of a simple motor task.
The points to ponder, given at last, should be discussed with the students before starting the experiment.
Hypotheses
H1: Performance of the praised group would be better than the performance of the blamed group.
H2: Performance of the praised group would be better than the control group.
H3: Performance of the blamed group would be better than the performance of the control group.

Variables:
Independent Variable-three conditions of feedback (positive feedback, negative feedback and no feedback).
Dependent Variable– Performance on a simple motor task.
Material used: Stopwatch, Three Cancellation sheets, pen and paper.
Subjects’ details: Three subjects of same age, gender and Educational Qualification.
                    Method
Preliminary setup: Three subjects were selected (matched on age, gender and qualification). Two of them are experimental subjects (one is praised other is blamed during task) and the other one is control subject. Stopwatch is checked. Letters to be cancelled should be decided before starting the experiment (consonants, vowels, j, k or any other selected alphabets as per the choice of the experimenter.
Procedure: Individual administration first on experimental subjects and then on control subject. Following
instructions were given to all the three subjects-
“This is a sheet comprising of both consonants and vowels. Your task is to cancel…. I will give you a signal of
‘ready’ thereafter i will give you a signal of ‘start. As soon as you hear ‘start’, start cancelling the letters you have been told. When i say ‘stop’, stop cancelling and put a slash (/).”
After the first trial of the experimental subject 1 (positive feedback), the experimenter took the cancellation sheet to evaluate and gave positive feedback viz. Good, fair etc. In this way five trials of 1 minute each were taken and positive feedback was given after every trial. 
Same procedure was followed for the experimental subject 2 and the
control subject except that the experimental subject 2 was given negative feedback after each trial and the control subject was not given any feedback.
Two errors were calculated in the experiment:
Error of Omission (EO): the number of alphabets left out.
Error of Commission (EC): the number of incorrect alphabets cancelled by subject.
The correct cancellations of different groups (leaving the two types of errors) in five trials were counted
Responses of ten subjects are collected to obtain the pooled data. Significance of mean difference is checked by using t test.
Precautions:The feedback was given in a consistent manner over five trials for experimental subject 1 and experimental subject 2.
It was made sure that the subject marked the end of each trial with a slash.
                    Results
Qualitative data: An introspective report is taken which serves as qualitative data.
Quantitative data: The quantitative results are presented in the following tables
Table 1: Individual Observation tables for showing the performance of ES 1, ES2 and CS
Table 2: Pooled data showing the performance of the three groups
t-testing between praise(ES1) and blame(ES2), praise (ES1) and control, and blame(ES2) and control groups.
   

Table 1 for praised subject

Number of trials Total letters cut by subject Error of ommiation Error of commission Total errors Total outputs
1 82 4 3 7 75
2 80 6 2 8 72
3 65 1 0 1 64
4 78 5 2 7 71
5 80 2 3

5 7

  

      Table 2 for blaimed group

Number of trials Total letters cut by subject Error of ommiation Error of commission Total errors Total outputs
1 73 6 0 6 67
2 80 6 1 7 73
3 73 25 2 27 46
4 56 8 0 8 48
5 67 10 0 10 5

 

       Table 3 for control groups

Number of trials Total letters cut by subject Error of ommiation Error of commission Total errors Total outputs
1 67 5 2 7 60
2 75 3 0 3 72
3 69 2 1 3 66
4 66 4 1 5 61
5 79 2 1 4 75
Pooled data of 10 subjects
Table 1 showing polled data of experiment group one (praised)

Subject no 1 2 3 4 5
1 72 78 83 89 94
2 66 69 72 78 85
3 48 50 59 59 68
4 80 72 75 77 83
5 71 79 77 69 73
6 63 60 66 74 80
7 57 66 71 63 67
8 77 79 83 86 89
9 65 60 70 64 66
10 75 72 64 71 75

Table 5 showing polled data of experimental subjects two

Subject no 1 2 3 4 5
1 67 73 46 48 57
2 46 53 50 63 73
3 51 56 58 64 67
4 43 48 44 53 62
5 62 69 73 77 81
6 54 58 63 60 62
7 61 54 67 65 68
8 47 52 56 62 59
9 72 75 74 79 82
10 56 59 65 67 64

  Table 6 showing polled data of controlled subjects

Subject no 1 2 3 4 5
1 60 72 66 61 75
2 36 43 48 37 43
3 41 44 47 45 43
4 44 47 51 53 57
5 56 59 53 51 64
6 65 69 74 67 72
7 57 62 56 59 61
8 43 47 51 45 48
9 39 42 36 38 33
10 51 55 54 59 62

             Calculations

T test between praised groups and blaimed group

Number of subjects Praised groups (x) Blaimed group (y)
1 416 291
2 370 285
3 284 296
4 387 250
5 369 362
6 343 297
7 324 315
8 414 279
9 325 382
10 357 311
Total 3589 3068

  Mean of praised groups=358.9

 Mean of blaimed groups=306.8
 Standard error of deviation=8.49 
T test between x and y =6.13
Degree of freedom=18 
T test between praised groups and blaimed groups is significant
T test between praised and controlled groups

Number of subjects Praised groups (x) control led group (y)
1 416 334
2 370 207
3 284 220
4 387 252
5 369 283
6 343 347
7 324 295
8 414 234
9 325 188
10 357 281
Total 3589 2641

mean of praised groups=358.9

Mean of controlled groups=264.1
T test between praised groups and controlled groups=9.43 
Degree of freedom=18
It is significance mean
T test between blaimed groups and controlled groups

Number of subjects Blaimed groups (x) Controlled groups (y)
1 291 334
2 285 207
3 296 220
4 250 252
5 362 283
6 297 347
7 315 295
8 279 234
9 382 188
10 311 281
Total 3068 2641

 

mean of blaimed groups=306.8

Mean of controlled groups=264.1
T test between blaimed groups and controlled groups=4.35
Degree of freedom=18
It is significance mean
In last you have to write interpretation of the experiment.
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